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Now let us understand how to work safely in confined spaces, and the first thing we will always do is produce a risk assessment. Let us just run through what a risk assessment actually is. It's broken down into simple steps. Step one, we identify the hazards. Step two, who might be harmed? Step three, we evaluate the risk. Step four, can we eliminate it, reduce, or control those risks to a lower level? Step five put it down in writing. And six, do review. So that is a very simple process to follow but needs to be completed first. However, there are additional factors that we will take into consideration when producing a risk assessment. I would want to know what is the condition of the actual confined space, the structure, the age of it.

What was in there? What was that content? Will there be any residues left over? Is there a risk of contamination? What about the physical dimensions of it? The work I do might even be hazardous, or there could be hazards on the outside. And of course, the emergency rescue. If something went wrong, how would we get that person out? So now we can soon see that the risk assessment is a bit more involved than maybe a standard one. A lot more things to consider and to make sure is in place. Now the format, or the way in which you produce the paperwork, is entirely up to you. There are some guidance documents on the Harbor Safety Executive website on templates that you could use, but what is important is getting that information down. Try to keep it as simple as possible, clear and easy to understand. Therefore, everybody is able to follow it and ensure that they are safe.

However, the main importance of a risk assessment is to ensure we have good control measures in place. We can break it down. Firstly, can I eliminate the hazard, remove it, get rid of it? That will always be the best way forward. If not, can I at least reduce it to an acceptable level? I might need to substitute something that is hazardous with something that is less hazardous, as an example. What about isolation? Can I separate me from the product, from the hazard? Additional controls will be required. That is why we have stations at work. Now, personal protective equipment has always been viewed as a last resort, and that is because we are still going to be exposed to the hazard, but it is the equipment we wear that protects us, and finally, discipline. A good example of discipline will be good, clear communications, informing people of what the hazard is.

So let us go through each of them with giving you some more examples. Let us look at the eliminate, avoid entering the confined space. Maybe we can modify it, make alterations on the outside. Inspection plates, for example. Maybe I need to automate the process, remove the human element of it. Perhaps cameras can be introduced, again, to save someone actually entering the confined space. Next move is to reduce. It could be steam cleaning is required to remove all the product, to clean it before the job is being done. I might need to use some form of ventilation to take away the fumes or just to cool down the atmosphere. Isolation with barriers to ensure that nobody else works in that particular area. You can even involve members of the public.

We got to protect that confined space opening. Isolation with pipework. Has everything been turned off, signed up, including electrical isolation? Now, the benefit of electrical isolation is we can introduce both lock-out and take-out systems that ensure that no one can turn on that piece of equipment. There are even at times when we will limit how long somebody might work inside that confined space. High temperature is a good example. They may work for only 90 minutes, come out, take some drink, have a rest for 10 minutes, then they can go back in again, or restrictive movement would mean we need to get them out every so often to stretch, to ensure they are safe. Then we have permits to work. Permits are a good way of managing a confined space. It is a written program that you have to answer either "yes" or "no" and make comments. You have to make sure that each of the points has been clear and filled it out.

Then we have PPE and breathing apparatus. Now, the PPE, as you say, is the last resort. So, for example, wearing a breathing apparatus means fume or gas has not gone away. But to wear a breathing apparatus, we need to have had proper training. We need to be competent. Let us just think about the different type of sets. Now, a self-contained breathing apparatus is a set you wear on your back. You have to do pre-checks. You have to a face-fit test. Has to be a BA... Board and tie system for the safety tenant, and usually we'll have to have a rescue team on standby. Then we have airline fed breathing apparatus. Now, the benefit of this equipment is we have extended times. Someone on the outside is monitoring the cylinders or the compressor while you go inside on this airline. We even have closed circuit breathing apparatus, known as re-breathers. This works quite good because it goes through a charcoal that removes the CO2.

And you can have anywhere between 20 and 90 minutes. But then when we finally look at the rest of the personal protective equipment, whether it be helmets, safety glasses, gloves, overalls. Need to make sure that all of it is compliant with either the British Standard or the CE Mark. Sign up your confined space, make sure it says, "No unauthorized entry." Permit to work must be obtained. Clear signs is a good way of managing people to ensure that discipline is applied. And that is how we then produce a risk assessment.